Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable. TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze, or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air. A person needs to inhale only a few of these germs to become infected. About one-quarter of the world’s population has a TB infection, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not ill with the disease and cannot transmit it. People infected with TB bacteria have a 5–15% lifetime risk of falling ill with TB. Those with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition, or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a higher risk of falling ill.
Causes of TB:
M.tuberculosis bacteria cause TB. They can spread through the air in droplets when a person with pulmonary TB coughs, sneezes, spits, laughs, or talks. Only people with active TB can transmit the infection. However, most people with the disease can no longer transmit the bacteria after they have received appropriate treatment for at least 2 weeks.
Symptoms of TB:
- A bad cough that lasts 3 weeks or longer
- Pain in the chest
- Coughing up blood or sputum
- Weakness or fatigue
- Weight loss
- No appetite
- Sweating at night
- If you have latent TB, your doctor will give you medication to kill the bacteria so the infection doesn’t become active. You might get isoniazid, rifapentine, or rifampin, either alone or combined. You’ll have to take the drugs for up to 9 months. If you see any signs of active TB, call your doctor right away.
- A combination of medicines also treats active TB. The most common are ethambutol, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampin. You’ll take them for 6 to 12 months.
- If you have drug-resistant TB, your doctor might give you one or more different medicines. You may have to take them for much longer, up to 30 months, and they can cause more side effects.
You can also refer to our site to get more details about the top 10 killer disease in India. And also you can also learn about Cardiovascular disease (Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment), Respiratory disease (Cause, Symptoms, and Prevention), Malaria (Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Prevention).